Thursday, 28 February 2019
The Call for Papers for the Philosophy of the City 2019 conference is open till June 1, 2019. I hope that the meeting will receive the same amount of attention.
For your reading list: My colleague Mark Ryan has published an interesting paper on the ethical aspects of smart city projects (Open Access).
As for my activities: I will attend a seminar on Housing and Values at TU Delft on March 13/14, 2019, and will deliver a keynote at the event „The future city: boring or bombastic?“ (Future City Foundation, Amersfoort) on April 5, 2019.
Finally, since it looks like the „Philosophy of the City Roundups“ are becoming a regular thing: Feel free to send me pointers to events, publications, and activities! I am happy to include them in the next round.
Thursday, 24 January 2019
2. Taylor Stone has defended his PhD thesis earlier this week. His pioneering doctoral thesis on Artifical Lightning is available online.
3. If you want to get an update on the BRIDE project: Kars Alfrink, who is working on the project at TUD, just posted an update on his blog.
4. Since we are talking about BRIDE: If you are around in Amsterdam on February 1, 2019, and have some time at 15:00 - we are looking for volunteers to interact with the 3D-printed IoT-enabled MX3D bridge to create our initial data set. Please, send me an email if you are interested.
5. Finally, as a reminder: the Call for the Philosophy of the City Summer Colloquium 2019 is still open and you may still join us for the Social Resilience in Diverse Societies workshop.
Monday, 14 January 2019
The workshop “Social resilience of diverse societies” will put together people that are representing various parts of this diverse society coming from two European countries, the Netherlands and Germany. In interactive sessions, we would like to elaborate on the challenges a diverse society faces in times of crises and what coping strategies exist. Building on this, we would like to highlight the opportunities that self-developed coping strategies offer to society and national disaster response strategies. In that way, a “best practice” for an integrative and inclusive disaster and crisis management can be identified and used to serve as a model for policy and decision makers.We are currently looking for representatives from diverse groups (e.g., people with disabilities or migrant communities) to discuss and strengthen their role in disaster and crisis management. If you are a member of such a group or do know groups which may want to get involved: Please forward our invitation or register here. Please note that the number of participants is limited.
Monday, 31 December 2018
Philosophy of the City Research Group
The Philosophy of the City Research Group has expanded its communication channels. We are now also running a LinkedIn group. Feel free to join us! You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook. Feel invited to inform us about new publications and events through one of our channels or by email.
The Philosophy of the City Research Group will host two panels at the Eastern Division Meeting of the American Philosophical Association (New York, January 7–10, 2019). You can find the details on page 13 and 17 of the conference programme.
The Call for papers for the Summer Colloquium 2019 on Urban Aesthetics is still on. The meeting will take place from June 17 till 19, 2019, at the University of Helsinki (Finland).
Finally, you should expect the CfPs for our Annual Conference in January 2019. The Annual Conference will take place in Detroit (Oct 2019).
Our paper on The Scope of Earth-Observation to Improve the Consistency of the SDG Slum Indicator came out. I plan to extend the section on the ethics and politics of 'slum detection' into a full paper and presented on these aspects at the annual conference of the NordSTEVA in Oslo.
Finally, I got involved in preparing a workshop on societal resilience, which will explicitly focus on so-called vulnerable groups, which too often are only understood as "weak links" in the resilience literature. In the workshop, we will explore how these groups contribute to urban resilience.
Tuesday, 6 November 2018
OZSW conference 2018The annual conference of the Dutch Research School for Philosophy (OZSW) will be held at the University of Twente on November 9 and 10, 2018. The conference will feature a symposium on "Politics & technologies of the city," which I have co-organised and will chair.
About the symposiumWhile the 21stcentury has been named the century of the city until very recently the city has remained an under-researched subject within Philosophy. More preciously, since the rise of the modern nation-state, political philosophy became more interested in states and the interplay between states. Within Philosophy of Technology, too, the city hasn’t become a dedicated subject of its own rights. Only recently, philosophers started to pay close attention to (a) the shifting role of cities as political actors and (b) the vision of the “smart city.”
In our symposium, we will combine contributions from Political Philosophy and Philosophy of Technology to stimulate a discussion about urban politics and the role of technology in the lives of urban dwellers.
What is the Point of “Urban Justice”? - Access to Human SpaceAuthor: Bart van Leeuwen (Radboud University, The Netherlands)
For some time now, the philosophical reflection on the meaning of social justice has broadened its scope from the domestic realm to the global realm. Global justice theory is timely, given the process of neo-liberal globalization, a widening of the global income gap and the fact that political philosophy traditionally has been focusing on the nation-state. However, the process of globalization also developed into a different direction: it went hand in hand with devolution, urbanization and the formation of global or world cities. A number of recent books written by social scientists acknowledge this by dealing with social justice on the level of a societal unit very different than the global or the national one, much closer to our life worlds and also more of less disregarded by mainstream political philosophy, namely the city (Brenner, Marcuse and Mayer, 2012; Dikeç, 2007; Fainstein, 2010; Harvey, 2009; Marcuse et al, 2009; Mitchell, 2003, Soja, 2010). Amongst the themes discussed here are: neoliberal-capitalist displacement and dispossession, gentrification, a reliance on market processes and an obsession with economic growth, the disregarding of the rights of homeless people, lack of citizen input, lack of tax base sharing (esp. in the US), lack of affordable housing, lack of public services in certain quarters, social and ethnic segregation and so on.
The recent publications in which these theme’s figure suggest that “the city” is indeed a relevant unit of social justice.
The main question that I want to explore in this paper is how these themes and questions should be framed theoretically. Do these recent books show or indicate that conceptual innovation is needed here — do we need an urban theory of justice — or is it a matter of applying existing theories of social justice to the urban context and if so, which kind of theory would be most appropriate?
First we will explore the question to what extent urban justice simply is a function of the aggregate level of state justice. Before we think about the contours of a theory of urban justice, we first have to be clear about the kind of normative questions that are related to the urban frame (§ 2). Next we will home in on the more substantial question of the paper, namely what kind of theory would be most fitting. After outlining some shortcomings of two existing approaches to urban justice (§ 3), I will argue in favor of a recognition-theoretical approach to urban justice. This approach to the just city is promising because it allows the articulation of a conception of human space. Human space is a normative conception of space that is structured by different patterns of recognition, namely care, respect and esteem, and that is embodied both by physical structures, institutions and intersubjective relations between individuals and groups (§ 4). This approach might be promising, but it does not produce ready-made answers to the central moral challenges of cities today such as segregation, gentrification and homelessness. What can be shown, however, is that it is able to articulate what is at stake in these challenges from the moral-political point of view (§ 5).
Infrastructures as Structuring Practices
In his “Critique of Dialectical Reason,” Sartre emphasizes the dialectical relationship between human beings and world. For the later Sartre, praxis is a transformative process in which human beings satisfy their needs and serve their interests by changing the material or mental conditions they are situated in as human beings in order to preserve their future selves. But these needs and interests themselves only become obvious because they are products of close interactions with material and/or mental conditions. The most important aspect for Sartre is, that human beings change their material conditions in such a way, that the world itself becomes the passive residue of these very needs and of the strategies that were employed in order to satisfy them.
This concept of praxis can help to understand the intricacies of human-technology relations. Since Sartre considers praxis to be a transformative act in which human beings materialize their ends in the world, he also considers technical artifacts to be such frozen and materialized ends of praxis as well. Technologies play a major role in this process since they mediate material conditions and needs in a very specific way. As means, technical artifacts open up different practical fields. A practical field is a set of possible practical interactions, that is mediated as such under material or immaterial conditions and future ends. But since technical artifacts are considered to be materialized ends, their employment changes the way the transformative praxis is actualized.
Sartre believes that alongside every praxis a form of habituation takes place through which successful strategies and utilizations of technical artifacts are passed on through time. Every success or failure leads to rules and norms which are again materialized in the way further praxis is actualized through technical artifacts. Sartre calls this form of habituation hexis, greek for disposition. In this hexis not only strategies but also norms and moral values are preserved.
Sartre’s thoughts may not only be employed for individual technical artifacts but also for large technical systems like infrastructures. Considering the role of infrastructures as lifelines of society, they can be regarded passive residues of human needs. They constantly provide users and experts with past decisions and strategies. Sometimes old structures under cities influence the way modern cities have to be planned and built. Infrastructures not only do this because they are fortified structures but because their design provides specific ways of how planning and building praxis can be actualized.
All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace: Liberal Democracy and the Smart CityAuthor: Ryan Mitchell Wittingslow (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, NL)
In his poem, “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace”, Richard Brautigan proposes governance by machines. Instead of democracy, he writes, we will have a “cybernetic ecology” where animals and computer co-exist in “mutually programming harmony”. The cost of this service is but a small thing. We need only offer our liberty to Brautigan’s titular “machines of loving grace”.
Although it’s been a long time since 1967, the utopian impulse that the poem articulates—the notion that we will be fitter, happier, and more productive if we allow ourselves to be administered by intelligent machines—remains compelling. Within the domain of urban design and planning, this impulse has recently expressed itself in a suite of proposals concerning what is called the “smart city”: that is, using information and communication technologies to autonomously manage municipal systems with the aid of sensors and actuators managed by artificial intelligences. Pilot programs are already underway in a number of Dutch cities, including Eindhoven, Utrecht, and Assen.
At least among philosophers, some of the flaws inherent in this view are well known. Machine learning algorithms possess politics just like any other artefact. The mere fact that these algorithms demonstrate some degree of autonomy by no means implies that they do not inherit the cultural and epistemic biases of their creators and users. There are, however, other concerns associated with optimising the panopticon. To that end, I will argue three things.
First, I will argue that liberal democracy is inherently, and necessarily, both slow and inefficient. This inefficiency is not a flaw. While the collectivist nature of liberal democracy means that decisions are almost always rendered less quickly than in authoritarian forms of rule, this very slowness helps guarantee that new policies and new behaviours are given sufficient deliberative scrutiny. It is upon these profoundly inefficient deliberative and aggregative procedures that the legitimacy of liberal democratic systems is premised.
Second, I will argue that the introduction of smart systems into liberal democracies threatens the integrity of these procedural norms. Although the use of artificial intelligences to swiftly and opaquely replace deliberative decision-making processes could produce positive outcomes in certain domains, it also directly compromises the necessarily slow, methodical, and dull processes that typify liberal democratic governance. This, I argue, poses an indirect challenge to the legitimacy of both democratic decision-making and the legitimacy of the institutions that help constitute that decision-making process.
Third and finally I will argue that the predictive nature of smart systems abrades uncomfortably against liberal democratic justitial norms such as the presumption of innocence, freedom of will, and notions of human dignity. Furthermore, decision-making artificial intelligences themselves pose a challenge to the rule of law, in that they cannot be subject to the laws they enforce. This, I claim, poses a profound challenge to the legal and political achievements upon which liberal democracy is premised.
Thursday, 20 September 2018
- Don't drink the water: biocities, biocitizens and Flint's water crisis / Joel Michael Reynolds, University of Massachusetts, Lowell & The Hastings Center
- Moving through real and virtual urban spaces / Rebecca Kukla, Georgetown University and Eli Kukla, Georg Washington University
- Right to the city: the public transportation justice / Vladan Klement, Masaryk University
- Love Sex Technology City / John Kaiser Ortiz, Millersburg University
- Creating Serving Learning Courses for Philosophy of the City: Lessons from The University of Nevada, Las Vegas / Shane Epting, University of Nevada, Las Vegas